How to lose weight is simple: with and without fitness. Calorie deficit and flexible diet theory

This equation is what I call the “big calorie fallacy.” It is dangerous precisely because it seems simple and somewhat intuitive. The important thing is that there are a number of misconceptions behind such a simple example.

Misconception No. 1: calories consumed and expended are independent.

This assumption is a big mistake. As we will see later in this chapter, experiments and experiments have shown this claim to be false. Calorie intake and calorie intake are closely related – reduce your calorie intake and your calorie intake will decrease as well. Reducing the caloric content of the food consumed by 30% leads to a 30% decrease in the amount of calories consumed. In this situation, the weight loss is minimal.

The best diet without damaging health. Calorie deficit

Well, quarantine during the coronavirus. What should you do? You can eat, make a cake, scones, tarts and more. And what to do with our sides and the unloved lyashki afterwards? After all, no one gave the body a command to burn extra calories, and furthermore, such a command does not exist. Now I will tell you how to lose weight safely and still not feel hungry. And what is the general principle of this “diet”, because it is more of a lifestyle and a diet. Any diet that you can find on the Internet works under this principle, only with them you violate your body and kill your metabolism, your health. There are 3 types of calorie deficit:

1. The  small deficit  consists of calculating between 10% and 15% of the calories burned in a day. Nutritionists advise beginners to start with a small deficit, because you can shed extra pounds in an absolutely painless way. Simply replacing regular milk with skim milk, sugar as a sweetener, honey. You won’t feel a significant difference in taste, but you will get rid of the “load” you don’t need. This is very suitable for people who have a significant decrease in productivity during diets.

Cons: Losing weight will be slow, but if you need to lose only 5-7 kg, then it is quite suitable for you.

2.  Medium deficit (moderate)  20% -25%.

The more pounds we want to lose and the faster we want to do it, the more calories we need to cut. At this stage, you will feel hungry, but if you want to lose weight faster, sacrificing a few weeks will not be difficult. Here everything is simpler, you can regulate what you eat through training. Have you eaten 200 more calories? We train and burn 400-500. The result will not make you wait long, or rather, not as long as in the first case.

There is only one drawback: hunger.

Advantages: the rate of weight loss is much higher and therefore it will not take so long to suffer.

3.  Large deficit of  25% to 50%

If a person is not patient or has a large number of extra pounds (20-30 kg), then nutritionists use such a cardinal decision as a “large deficit.” Only here there are many more disadvantages than advantages. Plus just one – you’ll lose weight really fast, but is it really worth the psyche? After all, it is no longer possible to correct the deficit through training. You will have to live in the gym, and as you know, time is not rubber and we all have several things to do, in addition to tedious workouts. With this diet, you will constantly feel hungry and the quantity and variety of its products will decrease significantly.

Another disadvantage is that, along with the fat, your muscles will disappear and you will have to strictly monitor your protein intake and adhere to a strength training program.

In addition, the disadvantage of this deficit is a slowdown in your metabolism, which will allow you to know yourself once your “torment” is over, and what we can say about the energy we need in life and in training. Concentration is weaker, your stamina will decrease and you will become more nervous, because – “Why is it okay for others, but not for me?”

From all this, we can conclude. It is not necessary to go to extremes. You didn’t gain weight in a day or even a week, so now show some patience to find the ideal ways for you. Be healthy, make the right choices, and you will be happy!

Misconception No. 2: basal metabolism is stable

We go crazy counting the calories we eat, but we rarely think about how many calories we burn (except for exercise). It is easy to calculate how many calories we are taking in, but calculating how much energy the body uses is quite difficult. For this reason, a simple but erroneous idea has been established that the body’s energy expenditure is stable, if physical activity is not taken into account. Total energy expenditure is the sum of the basal metabolic rate, the thermogenic effect of food, the extra-training activity, the training itself, and the excessive oxygen consumption after exercise. The body’s energy expenditure can go up and down by up to 50%, depending on the number of calories consumed and other factors.

 

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How many calories a day do you need to lose weight?

Mifflin San Geor’s formula for calculating calories  .

  1. Let’s define BMR: basal metabolic rate according to the Harris-Benedict or Muffin-Geor (Mifflin-San Geor) formula.

Muffin-Geor Formula (Mifflin-San Geora)

  • For a woman: BMR = 9.99 * weight (kg) + 6.25 * height (cm) – 4.92 * age – 161
  • For a man: BMR = 9.99 * weight (kg) + 6.25 * height (cm) – 4.92 * age + 5

Harris-Benedict formula

The original formula has become obsolete, so we will not write it here.

FORMULA 1984 (UPDATED)

for men:  BMR = 88,362 + (13,397 x weight in kg) + (4,799 x height in centimeters) – (5,677 x age in years)

for women:  BMR = 447,593 + (9,247 x weight in kg) + (3,098 x height in centimeters) – (4,330 x age in years)

The allowed deviations are ± 213 kcal / day for men and ± 201 kcal / day for women. This energy is necessary to maintain the processes in the body in a state of rest without activity.

  1. Your actual metabolic rate is always significantly higher than your basal metabolic rate. Therefore, you need to choose the KAZH that suits you best – the coefficient of life activity, taken equal to:
      • 1.2 – for a sedentary lifestyle;

    1.3 – low activity.

  2. 1.4 – for a medium level of activity;
  3. 1.5 – for an active lifestyle;
  4. 1.75 – for the extremely active,
  5. 1.9 is a professional athlete.
  6. Next, you must multiply the OOB and KAZh, thus obtaining the “Support Calories”. This is the calorie content to maintain your current weight.
  7. The next step is to create a deficit if you need to lose weight, or a surplus if you want to gain weight.

Calorie deficit calculation example.

Initially, we have: a 40-year-old woman, height 165, weight 65 kg, works in an office and wants to lose weight.

  • According to the new Harris-Benedict formula, we obtain  TMB = 1387 Kcal  . This is your resting basal metabolic rate, excluding activity and exercise.
  • CAZH – for our example, it is equal to 1.2 for a sedentary lifestyle or 1.3 if a woman walks 10,000 steps per day.
  • OOB * CAL = 1387 kcal * 1.3 = 1803 kcal. We have the support of calories, that is, By consuming 1803 Kcal a day, a woman will not lose weight and will not gain weight.
  • Create a weight loss deficit. 1803 kcal – 15% = 1533 kcal.

So, we got the calorie content to lose weight.

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The caloric deficit was  1803-1533 = 270 Kcal. If a woman additionally increases activity, for example 1-2 workouts, this will additionally create a deficit of another 200-350 kcal. And the total deficit will already be 500 Kcal.

Proteins / fats / carbohydrates – 105/55/154 = 1533Kcal.

To calculate the nutrients, you need to perform the following calculations:

The amount of protein that the human body requires on a daily basis depends on many conditions, including total energy intake and level of physical activity. It is often estimated based on body weight (0.8-1.8 g / kg of body weight), as a percentage of total caloric intake (10-35%). How much do you need to diet to lose 10 kg? If the excess weight is not more than 10 kg, then 100 g of protein, fat at the rate of 0.8-1 g per 1 kg of body weight is enough for women to lose weight, the rest are carbohydrates.

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Remember that 1 g of protein or carbohydrates equals 4 kcal, 1 g of fat = 9 kcal.

To lose weight, a person needs to consume 1.5 to 2 grams of  protein  per 1 kg of body weight per day. But remember that in a meal, the amount of  protein  should not exceed 30 grams, otherwise the body will not absorb excess  protein  . The maximum amount of protein for women is considered 120 g (for ordinary people, not professional athletes). If you weigh more than 100 kg, do not consume more than 200 grams of  protein  per  day  .

To create a deficit, after calculations, you must first check your calorie intake on the bracket for 10-14 days. Often many of us eat very little. If you have been on 800-1200KK diets for a long time, the body needs time to get used to the new daily calorie intake, because it has been under stress for a long time. And only after sitting on a support you will not lose weight or gain weight, you can create a deficit.All rights reserved livingnotes.ru ©

Misconception No. 3: we can control our calorie intake.

We consume food consciously, so we think we can do it carefully, and we naively exclude the role of hunger from the equation. However, the large number of overlapping hormonal systems affects the decision of when to start eating and when to stop eating. We make the decision to eat in response to hormone-controlled hunger signals. We stop eating when the body sends us signals of satiety, which are also controlled by hormones.

For example, during lunch, the smell of fried food can make you hungry, but if you have just eaten a large meal, the smell can also make you nauseous. The smells are absolutely identical and the decision is there or not, under the control of the hormones.

Our body has a complex system that helps us understand whether or not we need to eat. The body controls body fat automatically, just like breathing. We don’t remind ourselves of our breath, we don’t remember our heart beating. The only way to achieve complete control is by acquiring homeostatic mechanisms. Since hormones are responsible for the calories consumed and burned, obesity is a hormonal disorder, not a caloric disorder.

 

What is a calorie deficit for weight loss?

Any product on our menu has a specific energy value. If the caloric content of food exceeds the level of energy expenditure, the person begins to gain excess weight. This process can be reversed if you change your lifestyle. We need to create a calorie deficit. In this case, the body expends more calories than it receives from food.

A calorie deficit can occur:

  • subject to a strict diet;
  • during fasting;
  • with intense sports loads;
  • with a decrease in the usual portion volume.

If you provide a 10% calorie deficit, the probability of regaining the lost pounds is minimized. This will serve as a guarantee for the loss of body fat in problem areas of the body for a long time.

When losing weight, you should reduce your daily calorie intake by 10, 20, or 30%. With an indicator of a calorie deficit of 10%, a smooth weight loss is observed, with a shortage of 30% of calories, the weight loss occurs quickly and intensively.

A “recovery” from a 20% calorie deficit may be a decrease in muscle tone. Furthermore, with such dietary restrictions, the risk of developing “orange peel” increases.

A calorie deficit of more than 50% is detrimental to health. In this case, the body experiences an acute shortage of glucose and other beneficial elements. As a result, the metabolism worsens, the risk of dizziness and fainting increases. And directly the process of losing weight with a caloric deficit of 50% due to metabolic disorders is not accelerated at all.

Note! Experts advise sticking to a menu with a calorie deficit of 10%. In this case, the intensity of physical activity is not taken into account. To calculate the calorie deficit, special online calculators have been developed, the Harris-Benedict formula has been created.

Misconception No. # 4: fat storage is unregulated.

All systems in our body are regulated. Growth is regulated by growth hormone, blood sugar is regulated by the hormones insulin and glucagon. Puberty is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, while body temperature is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine. The list is endless.

However, they taught us that the increase in the number of fat cells is not regulated in any way. The food intake process is independent of hormones and in itself leads to the deposition of fat. Excess calories will certainly turn into fat.

This claim has long been confirmed to be false. Researchers are discovering more and more ways that hormones can influence fat formation. The best known is leptin, a hormone that regulates fat cell formation, but adiponectin, hormone-sensitive lipase, lipoprotein lipase, and adipocyte triglyceride lipase are also believed to play an important role. If hormones regulate the growth of fat cells, then obesity is a hormonal disorder, not a caloric disorder.

Misconception No. 5: a calorie is just a calorie

Such a thought is more dangerous than all the others. Of course it is true. Besides the fact that a dog is just a dog and a table is just a table. There are many types of dogs and tables in the world, but the simple statement that a dog is a dog is certainly true. The problem is this: do all calories threaten weight gain equally?

The claim that a calorie is just a calorie suggests that total calories consumed is the only variable that affects weight gain, meaning any food is considered only in terms of its energy value. But can we say then that a calorie in olive oil will trigger the same metabolic response as a calorie in sugar? Of course not. There are many differences between the two products. Therefore, the sugar will cause an increase in blood glucose, which will be followed by the release of insulin from the pancreas. Due to the ingestion of olive oil, such a reaction will not follow. When olive oil is absorbed by the small intestine and transported to the liver, there is no significant increase in glucose or insulin in the blood.

The five claims listed above, the key flaws in the calorie reduction theory for weight loss, turned out to be false. Not all calories are equal to weight gain. All the high-calorie hysteria of the last 50 years turned out to be a big mistake.

 

Categories: food, Health, slimming